This blog was authored by Lisa S. Charbonneau.

Should your agency permit employees to use their available paid leave accruals prior to designating leave as Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)-qualifying, even if your agency knows the leave is FMLA qualifying from the start?  A new Department of Labor (DOL) Opinion Letter issued by the Acting DOL Wage & Hour Administrator explains that employers that delay designation of FMLA-qualifying leave more than five days violate the FMLA.  Consistent with the new DOL Opinion Letter, employers should run FMLA once on notice of an FMLA qualifying event.

 What is the FMLA?

Generally speaking, the FMLA provides employees with the right to take up to twelve weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year to treat their own serious health condition or for various family care reasons, or up to twenty-six weeks to care for a covered service member.  An employee’s accrued paid leave may run concurrently with an employee’s otherwise unpaid FMLA leave.

The New DOL Opinion Letter

Issued March 14, 2019, a new DOL Opinion Letter addresses an employer’s obligation to designate leave as FMLA leave.  Specifically, the Opinion Letter explains that once an FMLA-eligible employee communicates a need to take leave for an FMLA-qualifying reason, neither the employee nor the employer may decline FMLA protection for that leave.  That is, once an employer determines the employee’s reason for leave is FMLA-qualifying, the leave is FMLA protected, must be designated as FMLA, and thus counts toward the employee’s FMLA leave entitlement.  As the DOL Opinion Letter explains, an employer “may not delay designating leave as FMLA-qualifying, even if the employee would prefer that the employer delay the designation.”  The Opinion Letter also rescinds any prior statements in previous opinion letters that are inconsistent with the new opinion.

Application to California Employers

For California employers, the new DOL Opinion Letter clarifies employer responsibilities – especially after the Ninth Circuit case, Escriba v. Foster Poultry Farms, in which the Court held that an employee may affirmatively decline to use FMLA leave, even if the underlying reason for seeking the leave would have invoked FMLA protection.  Importantly, the Escriba case did not hold that an employer may delay designation of FMLA leave when an employer is on notice of an FMLA-qualifying event.  Rather, the case dealt with a scenario in which an employee did not request FMLA leave and did not give sufficient information that the purpose of the leave was FMLA-qualifying.  Because the employer was not on notice that the leave was FMLA-qualifying, it did not have an obligation to designate the leave as FMLA.

The new DOL Opinion Letter is clarification that once an employer determines that a leave qualifies as FMLA, the employer should designate an FMLA-qualifying leave as FMLA leave within five days.  Even if an employee wishes to take accrued paid leave at the outset, if the employer is on notice that the leave is FMLA qualifying, the leave will necessarily count toward the employee’s FMLA entitlement and will not expand that entitlement.

What About the California Family Rights Act?

The California Family Rights Act (CFRA) follows the FMLA to the extent the laws are not inconsistent.  On this issue, CFRA is not inconsistent with the FMLA so the principles discussed above should extend to CFRA leave designations as well.

Applying leave laws is challenging.  If you have questions on how to apply the various state and federal leave laws that apply to your agency, seek advice and counsel of an experienced employment law attorney to ensure you are in compliance.

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Photo of Lisa S. Charbonneau Lisa S. Charbonneau

Lisa represents public agencies throughout the state as a negotiator, litigator, and trusted advisor in all matters pertaining to labor and employment law.  She has extensive experience in Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and wage and hour compliance, labor relations, collective bargaining, MOU…

Lisa represents public agencies throughout the state as a negotiator, litigator, and trusted advisor in all matters pertaining to labor and employment law.  She has extensive experience in Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and wage and hour compliance, labor relations, collective bargaining, MOU audits, PERB practice, and public employee disciplinary matters.  She also represents independent schools and non-profits in wage and hour matters.

Lisa has served as lead negotiator for small and large public agencies in labor negotiations with public safety unions and numerous other employee associations and organizations, including Teamsters, SEIU, AFSCME, police/deputy sheriffs associations, and the International Association of Firefighters.  Lisa takes a hands-on approach to bargaining and strives to be highly responsive to the unique needs of each client and their governing body.

Lisa also has an extensive litigation background in federal and state court, and has achieved successful results for clients in matters ranging from wage and hour to First Amendment retaliation.  As one of the firm’s FLSA litigators, Lisa has represented numerous cities, counties, and special districts in FLSA collective actions throughout the state.  She has also represented clients in arbitrations and fact-finding hearings, as well as before the Public Employee Relations Board, the California Labor Commissioner, the U.S. Department of Labor, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

A significant part of Lisa’s practice involves counseling clients on the meet and confer process and FLSA issues.  She also conducts FLSA audits for clients, which range in scope from reviewing employer compliance with discrete wage and hour laws to assisting with payroll system upgrades and modifications to achieve compliance with wage and hour laws.  Her practice also includes training on such subjects as ethics, discrimination and harassment, FLSA compliance, the collective bargaining process, and the Brown Act.

Lisa serves on the Executive Committee of the firm’s Wage and Hour Practice Group and has taught LCW’s FLSA Academy since its inception.

Lisa received her JD from U.C. Hastings College of the Law in 2006 and was admitted to the California State Bar in December of that year.  While at Hastings, Lisa served as an Equal Justice America fellow and received a grant to work on community economic development issues for the City of Detroit.  Lisa earned her Bachelor of Arts with Honors in Government from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, and soon after that worked at a bi-weekly political magazine in Washington, D.C. until she began to pursue her law degree.