The term “hostile work environment” is used – or rather, misused – so often, that its meaning has become somewhat obscured.  In an office full of fans of the local sports team, the sole fan of its archrival may say that being singled out as such creates a “hostile work environment.”  Or, in a workplace

Given the recent news coverage concerning COVID-19 vaccines and the government’s distribution plan for such vaccines, many of our clients have inquired whether it will be permissible to require school and community college district employees be vaccinated for COVID-19. This question is important from a public health perspective, complicated from a legal one, and almost

Given the recent news coverage concerning COVID-19 vaccines and the government’s distribution plan for such vaccines, many of our public agency clients have inquired whether it will be permissible to require that agency employees be vaccinated for COVID-19. This question is important from a public health perspective, complicated from a legal one, and almost certain

This post was authored by Melanie L. Chaney.

Under Title VII and the Fair Employment and Housing Act (“FEHA”), the employer has an affirmative obligation to take all reasonable steps necessary to prevent harassment, discrimination, or retaliation.  In order to comply with this obligation, employers must investigate all complaints of harassment, discrimination, or retaliation. 

Gavel-and-Books.JPGTitle VII of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (hereafter “Title VII”) has long prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in the terms, conditions or privileges of employment. One question of ongoing statutory interpretation has not been definitively answered: what constitutes “sex” for the purposes of employment discrimination? Are the terms “sex” and

MP900289067Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism are typically cited as the major religions of the world, although there are many others that have tens of millions of adherents or more.  The United States has no official established religion, and instead since its founding has guaranteed its citizens the right to free choice and exercise of

Quite a bit has changed since we last visited this topic generally in 2014.  Approximately eighteen states and over 200 municipalities ban gender identity discrimination.  Indeed, for several years, California’s Fair Employment and Housing Act has prohibited discrimination on the basis of “sex, gender, gender identity, [and] gender expression.”  As to federal law, this

Antonin_Scalia_Official_SCOTUS_PortraitU.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia died at the age of 79 on Saturday, February 13, 2016.  Known for his sharp turns of phrase and his conservative viewpoint, Justice Scalia was frequently controversial.  His jurisprudence over 30 years on the Court shaped much of American life, and public sector employment was no exception.  This blog